Outcome 1: Expanded Pool of Highly Skilled Youth and Women

Output 1.1: Entrepreneurship Training 

Training and mentorship is ideally to be integrated into the public education system. Given its absence from the curriculum in all stages of Education, ENID will ensure that entrepreneurial skills are disseminated throughout the governorates in a series of training workshops that include the following:

  • Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management
  • Logic and Critical Thinking including Problem Solving & Decision Making
  • Creative Thinking & Innovation
  • Economic and financial literacy including bookkeeping and knowledge of concepts and processes that can be applied to entrepreneurship
  • Communication, presentation and planning skills as well as teamwork are transversal skills essential to entrepreneurs.

The venue for most of these courses will be village youth centers with classes village for girls in the daytime to abide by the conservative culture in the South. Boys will access the same courses in the evening hours. 

Output 1.2: Vocational Training Center Program (TVET)

Utilizing existing vocational training centers in Qena urban and rural District, ENID envisages upgrading the capabilities of these secondary school  vocational centers to provide training in the following seven specific areas, which are high-potential growth sectors in the Egyptian as well as the Middle East job market:

  • Construction & Housing
  • Engineering: Electrician, Carpentry, Plumbing
  • Tourism/Hospitality Management (F&B services, Housekeeping, Front office)
  • Spinning and weaving
  • Ready-Made Garments Manufacturing
  • ICT
  • Agribusiness 

The ministry of Education has welcomed ENID’s intended intervention which will focus on training of trainers, investing in selected machinery and equipment for TVET workshops, introduction of Dual System whereby students learn practical skills at selected SME shop floor. 
Output 1.3: Farmer Field School (FFS)

Farmer field schools will provide a platform for farmers to learn from each other and share their experiences in practical problem solving. The school will run for the whole growing season of the crop where weekly farmers meetings will be held with the assistance of a competent facilitator. It is expected that 5 schools will be running every year; 2 for field crops, 2 for horticulture crops and 1 for livestock. The selection of crops and livestock will be demand driven. Possibly crops like fennel, sugar cane, corn, tomatoes, and grapes could be covered. Another important topic is cattle artificial insemination. 

On average 20 farmers will constitute the school which will run for about 4 months per crop. The schools will be repeated in different districts/villages for two years.  Specialized training will be provided to extension workers of the Agricultural Directorate. The training will cover emerging issues and nontraditional topics that are not usually covered in the regular training programs of the Ministry. Four topics will be selected for training workshops every year. Each training course will run for 5 days and will host 20 extension workers and facilitators. 

Outcome 2: Increased Job Opportunities.

Output 2.1: The One Village One Product Model (OVOP)

The OVOP model started in Japan in the 1960s. It had a Bottom Up approach. The government encouraged each village to choose a certain product or handicraft which it helped develop and market locally and internationally. ENID will play this a crucial role to support local producers by offering them tools, training and marketing support. 

The OVOP model has shown success in countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, South Korea, China, Cambodia, The Philippines, Laos and Indonesia. More recently, Kenya, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Nigeria, Zambia, Madagascar, South Africa, Senegal, Ghana and Malawi have started adopting this model as well. The OVOP model aims to create products and services up to the international quality standards using local resources. It is important to add an ethnic flavor to the product/service to be of interest to the international customer. It is also critical to ensure sustainability such that the products/services have an added value. 

ENID’s intervention focuses on the introduction of new handicrafts for the tourism and export sectors since they have shown to be of high growth and importance in economic development in several developing nations. ENID is seeking to institutionalize the process of the OVOP model and is advocating for the organization of local trade fairs and the creation of an Export Council for the Promotion of Handicrafts to manage and support craftspeople in Egypt. 

Based on ENID research, field visits and meetings with producers, exporters, private sector enterprises, NGOs and natural leaders, ENID has identified several products which already exist in Cairo and other governorates in the north that could be used to create new clusters in Qena. The rationale for transferring labor-intensive products to the south of Egypt is the large differential in wages and in the cost of space for workshops. To date, the products defined are the following: 

  • Carpentry (furniture) mostly for the domestic market.
  • Mother of Pearl inlays for woodwork products
  • Copper and brass engraving and inlaying. 
  • Copper Islamic lanterns.
  • Turnery and Arabesque for small and large functional house ware. 
  • Leatherworking for slippers, belts and handbags.
  • Brick manufacturing using local clay deposits. 
  • Handmade paper with local designs and calligraphy for wall hangings.
  • Blankets patchwork and quilts for local and export markets.
  • Stone carving using marble and other stone deposits.

ENID has partnered with several highly successful workshops (that are exporting to the Gulf and Tunisia) to provide training and transfer their knowledge to southern Upper Egypt.

Furthermore, ENID will introduce brand new crafts. These crafts have shown success in other developing nations and, according to research and market studies, show huge promise in the Egyptian markets. Examples of these crafts are camel bone carving and blue pottery.

Output 2.2: Ready-made garments

One of the most promising and labor-intensive industries selected by ENID for development in Upper Egypt, is the garments industry. The business model identified by ENID is “Your Job next to Your Home” which was developed by successful Egyptian entrepreneurs who export high quality ready-made clothing to Europe and the US. This initiative came about due to the distance between industrial cities and population densities which incurs high costs of transportation and negatively affects employee productivity due to fatigue, which can reduce the efficiency of production by as much as 40%.
The project aims to: 

  • Provide job opportunities for youth and especially young women.
  • Increase productivity and competitiveness of factories and increase export opportunities.
  • Raise the standard of living of the community and the village. 

The objective of the project is to create a small industrial entity owned by three youth entrepreneurs who are from within the local population of Qena in a village with high density and availability of low-cost labor. The small factory will be a stand-alone cut & sew production unit that is subcontracted by a larger exporter from Cairo. Accordingly, production will be made to the specifications of the export market. ENID has the support of the Egyptian Exporters Association for Ready Made Garments and in particular of the Export Council as well as TrainTex, which serves as the training arm for the association. This initiative is a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), which provides a win-win for all parties involved and once successful will provide a scalable model to be replicated throughout other villages/governorates.
ENID is providing a best practice, which is scalable such that it can be duplicated and replicated elsewhere. The modality within which ENID operates is to use franchising as a mechanism for scaling up. 

Proposed Guidelines: 

  • Management: Project management consists of three members (local youth entrepreneurs) who are entrusted with the administrative process and productivity of industrial facility.
  • Machinery: The facility contains 50 sewing machines as a first stage used in sewing garments (Basic shirt and similar). The industrial facility consists of five production lines with 10 machines in each production line.
  • Workers: An average employment of 110-120 workers, mostly young women. 

Output 2.3: Ecolodge

The Ecolodge project is a showcase for the creation of a low risk, inexpensive pilot hospitality model whose primary function is to display the multiple functions a low-cost, low-priced community-owned project can have on promoting Qena as a destination, provide linkages with other sectors of Qena’s economy, reinvigorate the local supply chain, employ women and youth, and provide a template that is competitively and easily replicable elsewhere. It offers a setting that uses locally harvested and sustainable or recyclable building materials, it provides an environment that reflects the designs and heritage of the local culture, It is affordable to local investors, and local ownership means shared profit and raised income, with spinoff effects for local producers of material, goods or services. 

This innovative approach to development engages communities as beneficiaries and guardians of heritage. It will have economic gains, through improving the livelihoods and working conditions of the local population through targeted employment-generation activities, with special focus given to women’s and youth employment, as well as the development of locally driven micro and small enterprises (MSMEs). Local handicrafts and skills are created for visitors and show-cased, food and beverages are supplied from local farmers, and environment-friendly use of energy, water, and waste systems will serve as good practice models for locals and for potential duplication by franchisees. 

The lodge will be located on an initial one feddan within proximity of the famous Dandara Temple of Hathor, a short distance from Dandara village built-up areas. It will be comprised of 10 rooms, expandable to 20 and will be designed with a minimal footprint of approximately 600-750 sqm with a large garden and shall capitalize on flexible landscaped outdoor space.

Employment creation: Direct jobs 20 staff. Indirect jobs 20. Food and beverage from village, transport, souvenir sales, teaching of local crafts, guided tours, leisure activities. The revival of the crafts involved in the construction process and in the creation of furnishings, and souvenirs is a key to the success of the project and a primary goal. The design will employ local materials in a contemporary and functional way to promote their use both locally and regionally, and will rely entirely on local staffing and craftsmen and women. The gender and youth potential will be a focus point.

Output 2.4: Dairy Processing:

The project aims at establishing two small plants for dairy processing in rural Qena. The location of the plants will be targeted in districts that have good capacity for milk production. Each plant will be operated by an active NGO. Dairy processing plants would help add value to the fresh milk and enhance the marketing possibilities of dairy products. The processing unit will include milk collection unit, unit for refrigeration, pasteurizing unit, and small facilities for making cheese and yoghurt.

The project will recruit dairy processing specialists to help guide the assigned staff of each NGO through the first month of operations. To further enhance the productive capacity of rural women, specialized dairy processing training will be conducted in the fields of cheese, yoghurt, and fresh milk preservation and hygiene. 

Outcome 3: Increased Economic Productivity and Competitiveness. 

Output 3.1: Upgrading Existing Handicrafts Clusters

Based on research and findings, ENID has concluded that five traditional clusters in Qena have high potential in raising productivity if upgraded. These products are hand weaving, palm products, pottery-making, wood and stone carving. The current status of these clusters is abysmal in terms of low quality of production and low market penetration.

In order to raise MSME and cluster productivity, ENID has consulted with local and international artisans and designers to introduce new functional designs that could be successfully marketed on both the local and international market. ENID has identified technology gaps and will introduce mid-level mechanization to keep the “handmade” aspect of handicrafts; thus, ENID will provide local producers with improved tools and will train them with the needed skills to bridge down that gap. ENID will work as well on strengthening the business environment including the expansion of access to micro-credit channels. 

ENID has begun work on the 1st training centre in Nakada district of Qena. The centre is envisaged to be a “Crafts Centre” for the promotion of the handicrafts heritage of Upper Egypt, including for example, a handloom (Ferka) training centre with support from the Japanese government, who are cofounding the construction and equipping of the centre, the local authority, which has allocated a generous plot of land (approximately one acre) and a local NGO who has been active for 70 years in Upper Egypt, and that will operate the centre. 

Output 3.2: Successful Entrepreneurship for Franchising Development

Franchising is considered to be a key tool for creating economically viable and sustainable enterprises for young people. The overall objective of ENID is to introduce on the ground as many as 20 franchised products for MSMEs that can be replicated by entrepreneurs at the base of the socioeconomic pyramid. 

The mission of ENID is to start a growth and employment spiral of MSMEs in Upper Egypt (with a focus on Qena for demonstration purposes). The integrated approach adopted by ENID is to simplify the route and guidelines to successful micro and small businesses. This will be done by piloting innovative interventions to raise the productivity and marketability of existing clusters, provide concrete examples of successful small businesses, encourage diversification and the immigration of some labour-intensive economic activities to the south and improve the overall enabling environment for business. 

The purpose is to investigate the drivers for entrepreneurial behaviour among young men and women in rural low income context, namely the governorates of Qena, Luxor, Aswan and Sohag. This will enable to identify the role played by education and training institutions including the quality of teachers and trainers and curriculum content. It will also help identify the role of local – as opposed to central-policy in providing an enabling environment, access to credit and business development services. Another solution that will be derived from ENID interventions is the nature of appropriate business models, and franchising in particular, in providing opportunities for young men and women to become owners of businesses and successful entrepreneurs by replicating ENID pilot projects. This is especially important for young women of varied educational backgrounds who are unable to use their education and talent towards employment and income. 

Outcome 4: Enhanced Income Generation Projects in Social Services

Output 4.1: Combined Preschool and Health Unit Center 

Based on findings on child poverty and income disparities in Egypt (UNICEF 2010), education deprivation is closely related to health and food deprivation. The results of nationwide nutrition surveys suggest that the nutritional status of young children in Egypt has improved during the last decade.  However, the situation in rural Upper Egypt is still a cause for concern compared with urban governorates and Lower Egypt.  The main concern among preschool child is stunting.  Moreover, anemia is prevalent.  Those most affected are preschool children and their mothers, and the deficiency of vitamin A and Iodine is also a problem.

A priority providing children and mothers with educational and health services to reduce dimensions of deprivation and empower them to manage their life. Empowerment of both children and women together will be achieved by combining the provision of services and capacity building as one intervention. Based on this rationale is an integrated package of interventions, dealing with the mother and child together, responding to their needs in education, health, nutrition and employment.  

According to the Egypt Human Development Report for 2005, as many as 100,000 new jobs can be created at the national level for preschool teachers and teacher helpers by raising the level of coverage of preschool children’s enrolment from 16% to 60%.

Output 4.2: Combined Girls' Education and Vocational Training Center 

It is estimated that only thirty-eight percent of women in Upper Egypt are literate. According to UNICEF, the literacy rate for women can in fact be as low as ten percent in villages. UNICEF also estimated that 250,000 girls quit school each year. USAID indicates that 800,000 girls are out of school between the ages of 6 and 15 and 600,000 are out of school between the age of 6 and ten. The reason for the high illiteracy rate is mainly because girls and women have very limited education access as a result of cultural factors. Another reason is that they are expected to work at home and in the fields starting at a very young age. 

Improving the socio-economic outcomes for girls and young women who have dropped out of school or never attended is of central importance, not only to the beneficiaries themselves but also to the communities and the next generation.  Combining the adolescent girls education with vocational training is an approach that provides basic education with skill formation in order to qualify girls to join the labour market.  

Outcome 5: Enhanced Policy Making, Knowledge Environment and Advocacy

ENID is envisioned to become a driver for informed policy decision-making in Egypt, and is best situated to utilize and communicate sectoral evaluation findings to key decision makers. ENID activities will advance the role which “knowledge” will play in identifying and spreading effective good practices across Egypt for beneficiaries and the policy community alike. It will use traditional media tools to advocate for, demonstrate and educate for best practice interventions.   
Output 5.1: Knowledge Platform Created

ENID has first invested in leveraging the role of information technology to enable all development agents to source information and data on successful initiatives undertaken in Egypt and abroad, and to guide beneficiaries in best practice procedures and methods. ENID’s ICT provision encompasses an extensive website, with a comprehensive databank and use of social media for dynamic and interactive communication.
The use of the knowledge platform is directed towards: 

  • NGOs (established local organizations)
  • Local Government (governorate administrations)
  • Central Government Ministries and Policy Bodies (policy briefings)
  • Beneficiaries (small stakeholders and the Private Sector)
  • Development Agencies and Academics (Research and Best Practice Reports)
  • Marketplace (ENID handicraft products)

The knowledge platform is continuously monitored with regard indicators of success, such as number of website hits, type of traffic on website, type of downloads, number of followers on social media, etc.
Specific benefits include the following:

  • Feasibility studies and project evaluation findings will be continuously utilized and communicated in the form of full documentation at the governorate and national levels for the benefit of the business community, NGOs and potential donors and relevant decision makers.
  • The online knowledge platform will cover the information and documentation related to those development areas in which ENID is involved. Access is also linked to the Policy Briefs provided on-line.
  • A comprehensive spatial and sub-national level database will highlight indicators related to development programs and economic activity at the governorate level.
  • The website provides interactive tools for users to assess the cost and benefit of various scenarios/options for policy on national priorities in order to promote national dialogue.
  • The Knowledge website addresses the need of development agencies (whether NGOs, government agencies or donors) to facilitate information exchange and networking on behalf of communities of practice.
  • A quarterly electronic newsletter will inform the general reader with minimal use of technical language and a strong element of practical information, along with applied research results at the level of sector specific development interventions.
  • The Platform builds the capacity of youth on behalf of clusters of MSMEs, households, local administrations and popular councils to manage information relevant to the needs of each group of stakeholders including access to business services and micro-credit.


Output 5.2: Dissemination and Advocacy Tools

Dissemination and advocacy using traditional media is a core dimension in ENID’s mission.  The purpose is to direct development messages to those of the public with no access to electronic media, including those mainly rural poor, the marginalized and other disadvantaged groups. The intention is to foster shared identity and group purpose, as well as provide educational and technical tools for application, such as manuals.  Tools also include press releases, advocacy op-eds and press and media packages targeted at the general public, short documents, round tables and seminars or thematic workshops for practitioners and for beneficiaries, and filmed on-site visits/training documentaries and recorded sessions, with multiple goals, including advocacy through Radio and Television. A major concern is to reach policymakers both directly (policy briefs, meetings and conferences) and indirectly (pressure from civil society through mixed media campaigns).

Specific benefits include: 

  • Production of manuals and other educational tools for use on the ground.
  • Promotional material in support of projects/products, marketing and export.
  • The use of traditional tools such as press releases, advocacy op-eds and press and media packages, to highlight best practice and policy implications to a wide audience, specially addressing local level audience.
  • Organization of round tables, seminars or thematic workshops to discuss best practice and policy implications,  from the technical and sector specific orientations. 
  • Workshops to promote training and best practice. 
  • Educational and promotional material for radio/television use.
  • National Policy workshops to present lessons learnt, policy implications and recommendations for scaling up ENID Best Practices.